Washington State University

Small Farms Team

Programs and Resources for Hmong Farmers

Articles on Hmong Culture, History, and Farming

Allen, Margaret (Peg), Matthew, Susan, and Mary Jo Boland. (2004). “Working with Immigrant and Refugee Populations: Issues and Hmong Case Study.” Library Trends 53(2): 301-328.
This article discusses the challenges related to providing health information for immigrants and refugees in the context of developing health education/health literacy programs. Topics include special needs of immigrant and refugee populations; health care for immigrants and refugees; identifying and working with partner organizations; examples of successful efforts; and finding funding sources for health information literacy projects.

Corlett, Jan L., Dean, Ellen A., and Louis E. Grivetti. (2003). “Hmong Gardens: Botanical Diversity in an Urban Setting.” Economic Botany 57(3):365-379.
This article reports on the findings of a study which documented 59 Hmong garden species grown at a site in South Sacramento. Most of these species are documented as either food or medicinal plants. This article discusses the uses of the plants as well as the importance of urban gardens in maintaining Hmong cultural identity and practices.

Giang, Ho Ly (2000). “The Food Culture of the Hmong.” Vietnam Social Sciences 6(80): 96-110.
This article describes the food customs, food production, dishes and cooking methods, medicinal foods, food preservation methods, drinking and smoking habits as well as social behaviors and taboos associated with food practiced by Hmong residing in Hoa Binh province of Northwest Vietnam.

Hoan, Pham Quang (1995). “The Role of Traditional Social Institutions in Community Management of Resources among the Hmong of Vietnam.” East-West Center Working Papers, Indochina Series 5.
This article provides an overview of Hmong land management practices in Vietnam.

Miyares, Ines M. (1997). “Changing Perceptions of Space and Place as Measures of Hmong Acculturation.” Professional Geographer 49 (2): 214-224.
This article documents in-depth interviews and participant observation among 120 Hmong university students and their families in order to understand the spatial acculturation process of Hmong refugees in California's San Joaquin Valley.

Nguyen, Van Minh. (2000). “Agricultural Adaptation of the Hmong in Vietnam.” Vietnam Social Sciences 6(80): 75-95.
This article assesses various aspects of the agricultural adaptation of the Hmong in Northwest Vietnam over the past several decades. The author discusses changes in crops grown, the impact of macroeconomic changes in Vietnam, changes in land classification, land use, and land rights among Hmong in this region, the role of swidden cultivation, and the relevance of social customs and the family division of labor in Hmong agriculture.

Tanaka, Shawn Toshiro (2001). Immigrant Farmer's Gold Mine: The strawberry(California). MA Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus. This study compares the experiences of Hmong-American and earlier generations of Japanese-American strawberry growers in California's Central Valley through oral histories, interviews, and photographs. A comparison of the two groups suggests that strawberry cultivation is an entrance crop for immigrants with an agricultural background.

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